The Five Elements Theory in Chinese Medicine (With Chart)

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May 23, 2024

Essential Takeaways

  • The five elements illustrate how the systems in the human body are connected with one another and with the rest of the world.
  • TCM doctors use the five elements theory to form a thorough diagnosis and create a targeted treatment plan.
  • The five elements are wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. They each represent parts of the body, personality characteristics, seasons, colors, and more

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the five elements theory sheds light on the connectedness of all beings and things. This theory says that everything is made up of the same five elements, and those five elements play a role within the human body as well.

By understanding the five elements theory and the way it corresponds to specific body parts and systems, TCM doctors and patients can strive toward balanced energies within the body.

What is the Five Elements Theory in Traditional Chinese Medicine?

The Five Elements theory is a fundamental framework in TCM used for understanding the relationships between the human body, the natural environment, and the various organs and systems within the body. The Five Elements—Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal, and Water—are believed to represent different aspects of nature and correspond to specific organs, colors, tissues, emotions, and seasons.

The application of the Five Element theory can significantly impact the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions in Chinese medicine since they help inform how elements influence one another and the health of the individual. Understanding this theory can help you better understand your traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment plan.

Keep in mind that your TCM practitioner will also be familiar with the five elements theory and can help you further understand correlations specific to your symptoms, goals, and concerns. WiIth Qi Health, highly rated practitioners are only a few clicks away.

Five Elements Theory Chart in TCM

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the five elements theory sheds light on the connectedness of all beings and things. This theory says that everything is made up of the same five elements, and those five elements play a role within the human body as well.

The following chart describes how various elements and body systems correspond according to the Five Elements Theory.


What are the five elements?

The five elements are wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. Each element is associated with specific organ systems and meridians in the body, and with emotional and psychological aspects. Each element is associated with specific emotions, personality traits, and mental states.


Logs of wood stacked in the forest


Element Personality: Assertive, logical, and organized

Wood symbolizes growth, expansion, and vitality. It is associated with the liver and gallbladder, governing the smooth flow of Qi and blood throughout the body. In TCM, wood generates fire and controls earth.

Yin Organ: Liver

Yang Organ: Gallbladder

Sensory Organ: Eyes

Fluid: Tears

Color: Green

Season: Spring

Emotion: Anger, frustration

Taste: Sour

Body Tissue: Tendon




Element Personality: Energetic, passionate, and empathetic

Fire is aligned with heat, energy, and yang. It often symbolizes purity and transformation and is linked to connection with others in TCM. Ensuring balance with the element of fire is crucial for vitality and general health. When the fire element is out of balance, it’s common to experience anxiety, restlessness, and health concerns related to the heart.

Yin Organ: Heart

Yang Organ: Small intestine

Sensory Organ: Tongue

Fluid: Sweat

Color: Red

Season: Summer

Emotion: Joy, love, excitement

Taste: Bitter

Body Tissue: Blood vessel


Plants growing on farm


Element Personality: Supportive, receptive, and dependable

The earth element symbolizes nourishment, stability, and grounding. Body systems related to the earth element are central to digestion and the production of Qi and blood from food. Imbalances in the earth element can manifest as digestive issues, fatigue, and excessive worry, reflecting its role in both physical nourishment and mental stability.

Yin Organ: Pancreas

Yang Organ: Stomach

Sensory Organ: Mouth

Fluid: Saliva

Color: Yellow

Season: Late summer

Emotion: Overthinking, worry, sympathy

Taste: Sweet

Body Tissue: Muscle


Bits of metal


Element Personality: Detached, strong, innovative

With strong ties to autumn and forward motion, the metal element is connected to change and refinement. Health imbalances related to the metal element can manifest as respiratory issues, skin problems, or emotional difficulties.

Yin Organ: Lung

Yang Organ: Large intestine

Sensory Organ: Nose

Fluid: Mucus

Color: White

Season: Autumn

Emotion: Grief, sadness

Taste: Spicy

Body Tissue: Skin and hair


water droplet


Element Personality: Introspective, strong-willed

The water element is nourishing, yet cold. It is fire’s opposite and symbolizes depth and resourcefulness. In the body, water is responsible for filtering, purifying, and healing. When the water element is out of balance in the body, symptoms such as fatigue and urinary issues can arise.

Yin Organ: Kidney

Yang Organ: Bladder

Sensory Organ: Ears

Fluid: Urine

Color: Blue

Season: Winter

Emotion: Fear

Taste: Salty

Body Tissue: Bone****

How the Five Elements Work in Traditional Chinese Medicine

In the process of diagnosing health conditions, functional medicine doctors take many factors into account, including the complex relationships between these organs and meridians. They assess the flow of Qi (vital energy) and the balance or imbalance within these systems to determine the root cause of symptoms and find the best route for treating them.

They also evaluate the emotional and mental state to gain more clarity on potential imbalances in emotions, which can contribute to health issues.

By understanding the relationships between the Five Elements and the organs, emotions, seasons, and other factors, practitioners not only identify and treat health issues using this framework but also work to predict potential problems and prevent them.

Relationships Between the Five Elements

The relationships between the Five Elements are characterized as either generating or controlling. Each of these interactions are crucial for maintaining balance within the body. For instance, water nourishes wood, wood feeds fire, fire creates earth, earth bears metal, and metal enriches water. Conversely, wood controls earth, earth dams water, water extinguishes fire, fire melts metal, and metal chops wood.

These cyclical and extremely interconnected relationships allow TCM practitioners to diagnose and treat diseases. In order to correct element imbalances, they can supplement or suppress precise elements to restore health.

Implementing Five Element Theory in Your Life

Keeping the Five Element Theory in mind can help transform many different areas of your life, not only your physical health. You can gain impactful understanding into your mental health, your relationships, and your emotional outlook by considering how the five element theory may be playing into a given situation.

For example, by identifying which health systems or emotions may feel out of balance on a given day, you can strive to regain balance through diet and exercise choices that correlate with the elements you need to adjust. You can also be on the lookout for seasonal changes that correlate with the five elements. Ongoing health concerns or large changes in diet and exercise should always be discussed with a doctor.

The best way to harness the power of the five elements to improve your mental and physical wellbeing is to talk with a certified TCM practitioner about your goals and concerns. From there, you can receive personalized recommendations that could include self-care practices, diet suggestions, customized herbal medicine plans and more.

Benefits of Understanding the Five Elements

Understanding the five elements and the way that so many aspects of life and the body are connected can help shed light on the emotional, physical, and environmental factors that all play a role in overall health.

At the very least, understanding the concepts behind the five elements theory can help individuals live more mindfully of the ripple effect that every choice can have and the ways in which every being is related. While the five elements theory has played an important role in TCM for centuries, research is still emerging to clarify whether this theory can truly support health insights.

There are a few studies that illustrate the connection between the body and the elements particularly well. For example, using the five elements theory to tailor music therapy and acupoint needling provided promising results in a 2017 study. Another study drew parallels between the five elements theory and the structure of a cell. As TCM gains more traction in the West, we can expect to see even more studies in coming years.

Limitations of the Five Elements

While the five elements theory provides a helpful starting point, it cannot create a full diagnosis. For example, it wouldn’t make sense to assume that a headache is actually a sign of a kidney problem, just because it’s wintertime. An understanding of the five elements goes a long way in appreciating just how interconnected human health is with the earth, but it is not a standalone tool for diagnosis or treatment.

The five elements alone cannot tell you the exact cause of your symptoms or give you a foolproof recommended treatment. However, working with a certified TCM doctor who uses the five elements to guide their practice can result in an extremely thorough and accurate diagnosis. From there, the TCM practitioner can make targeted recommendations for how to improve your symptoms and meet your goals.

With Qi Health, connecting with top-tier TCM practitioners is just a few clicks away. Certified TCM doctors will meet with you virtually to fully understand your health concerns, desired changes, and more. Then, they’ll provide a diagnosis and prescribe a customized blend of pure herbs from the Qi Health pharmacy. Follow-up visits will allow you to adjust your dose, discuss your progress, and tailor your treatment plan as needed.

Balance Your Five Elements

Living with stagnant Qi in the liver and other imbalances can cause impactful physical and emotional symptoms. By applying the principles from the five elements theory and many other TCM concepts, the practitioners at Qi Health are ready to help you find relief.

A holistic view of all symptoms, goals, and environmental factors helps practitioners determine treatment that will recreate harmony within the system. Through personalized herbs and a thorough treatment plan, reclaim elemental balance with Qi Health.

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